Types of allergies and their effects on human health

There are several types of allergies which can be classified according to the allergen that triggers them.

Allergies to molds and dust

The molds are tiny creatures which have no more than 300 microns and which have as their ideal habit mattresses, beds, carpets, curtains and other places that favor dust gathering. They feed with dust and dead cells and their waste floats in the air, ending up in humans' nasal mucosa and lungs, causing allergic rhinitis, asthma, conjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis.

Food allergies

Vegetables fruits These allergies are more frequent among babies and toddlers because their immune and digestive system are insufficiently developed. However, the number of adults suffering from some sort of food allergy cannot be overlooked. The most wide-spread are milk, egg and nuts allergies. These allergens are extremely powerful and sometimes they can be transmitted through breast milk from the nursing mother to the baby. Therefore it is better to avoid these foods while breastfeeding. Milk and egg allergy might disappear by the time the child reaches the age of 5, but peanut allergy once triggered will never fade away. Other foods that cause allergic reactions are: strawberries, bananas, peaches, almonds, apricots, honey, pollen and others. The symptoms of an allergy caused by a food include rashes on various parts of the body. The same rashes can also be caused by a certain type of medication. The symptoms of rashes are: small, swollen red spots and intense itching.

Allergies to chemical substances

The cosmetic products might contain chemical agents that are very dangerous especially for little children who have an immature immune system. Signs of an allergic reaction to chemical substances might include rashes, allergic rhinitis, tearing and even asthma. Therefore, it is better to avoid using cleansing or cosmetic products around children. There are people who have developed an allergic reaction to natural rubber (latex). This happens in the case of people who have repeatedly worn latex gloves.

Allergies to drugs

Sometimes certain drugs, especially antibiotics are attacked by the immune system because it considers them harmful. This can happen all of a sudden even in the case of patients who have previously used the drug and have presented no allergic reaction. Therefore, the doctor must distinguish between an allergic reaction and the side effects of a certain medication. The dose and the substance are not conclusive since the allergy can be triggered by small amounts of the respective drug. Although, in the majority of cases only rashes appear, there have been dramatic cases of anaphylactic shock.

Allergic reactions to pets

Pets might trigger severe allergic reactions. Over 15% of the world's population is allergic to one pet or another. This is a health problem that usually appears in early childhood. The most frequent allergen is the cat fur, but the dogs, hamsters, parrots, rabbits, fish and turtles can cause some pretty nasty reactions too. The main pet allergens are the pets' saliva, urine, fur, feathers and even the special food given to them. If you want to buy a pet and you ask yourself what are the signs of an allergic reaction to pets, you have to know that repeated sneezing, tearing, rashes and even asthma attacks are all symptoms of allergic reactions to pets.

Allergies to insects' venom

The allergic reaction to insects' venom is one of the most dangerous allergy types. When people are stung by an insect, its poison and other toxins in the insect's venom enter into contact with that person's blood. It is not abnormal for the stung spot to swollen, itch and to get a reddish color. The allergic reaction appears when the immune system reacts in an exaggerate manner.


Asthma is a serious type of allergy with multiple causes. It is a respiratory condition that determines the inflammation and spasm of the bronchi. The inflammation determines a narrowing of the bronchi which limits the air flux that comes and goes to the lungs. Among asthma symptoms we can enumerate: respiration difficulties, whistling respiration, coughing, red eyelids, tearing, itching eyes, allergic eczema, skin redness and itching, dry skin, irritations around the eyes and on the face.

What are the signs of an allergic reaction to hay?

The symptoms associated with this allergy are: abundant nasal mucosa, blocked nose, sneezing, nose itching, ear and throat itching.

The allergic shock/the anaphylactic shock or the anaphylaxis

The allergic shock is an extremely powerful even deadly allergic reaction which can affect several organs at the same time. The shock occurs when the allergen is ingested (foods or medication) or injected (bee or wasp venom). The symptoms for an anaphylactic shock are: redness and powerful itchiness of the stung area, nasal congestion, throat swallowing, stomach ache, nausea, vomiting, and difficulties in breathing, whistling, accelerate pulse, decreased blood pressure and loss of consciousness.

What are the symptoms for allergic rhinitis?

The symptoms of this allergic reaction are: swelling and inflammation of nasal mucosa, congestion, sneezing, tearing and itchiness.


It is a type of dermatitis that is very wide spread. People suffering from it have an extremely sensitive skin to various types of allergens. The allergic reaction includes a dry, scaly skin that develops on red, swollen areas that at the same time give a burning sensation.

Allergic conjunctivitis

This is an allergic reaction that develops at the level of the ocular mucosa. The edge of the eyelids get red and one can observe the formation of a secretion. What is the cause of this allergic reaction? The answer is simple: shampoos, cosmetic products, dust, smoke, feathers, molds, pollen grains or pet fur.

Contact Allergy

It is also known under the name of contact dermatitis and it is an allergic reaction caused by the direct contact with an allergen which determines the inflammation development. Hot water and detergents are the number one cause of this type of allergy. Other causes are: direct contact with precious metals, acids, solvents, soap, industrial chemical substances, antibiotics, anesthetics, rubber, perfume, cosmetic products, wool and clothes made of wool.


This is an allergic reaction that is characterized by a subcutaneous, edematous eruption. This edema can be caused by food with allergic potential, an insect sting or by drug ingestion. The edema affects the oral mucosa and the superior airways as well as the lax, subcutaneous tissues of the face. It appears like a hard, pink, swelling without pus but which produces a burning sensation. It can cause suffocation according to the place of its location. If respiration problems occur, the affected person must be taken to the hospital immediately. All types of allergies might have a dramatic outcome. Therefore, they should not be treated superficially but with the utmost care. The anti-allergic medication has to be taken according to the doctor's advice and under his/her supervision.

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